HANDBOOK: Applied Bassoon at the University of Hawaii

The program for Applied Bassoon at the University of Hawaii is a highly individualized, sequential course of study.

The objective of applied bassoon lessons is to develop the highest levels of musicianship, technical ability, performance skills, and pedagogical understanding of which the student is capable.

While Performance majors and Music Education majors each have a similar course of study; Education majors focus on how to teach bassoon playing as well as many other aspects of bassoon knowledge; Performance majors focus more specifically on how to play the bassoon and how to perform effectively. The focus for Non-Music majors is placed primarily on helping the student with ensemble music as needed in addition to the basics of bassoon technique and musicianship.

Emphasis is put on addressing each student’s strengths and weaknesses with the goal being to help and encourage musical growth as a unique individual, so that students may reach their maximum potential and find their own artistic voice both as a musician and as a teacher. Students are aided in learning how to project their musical ideas successfully to an audience and also how to orally express these ideas to others as a teacher.

Students must conquer the demands of technique, rhythmic accuracy, flexibility of intonation and tone, projection of sound, dynamic control, instrument maintenance, and reed making.

It is expected that students will demonstrate high standards of preparation and performance in each lesson. It is hoped that the student studying applied bassoon will improve playing proficiency as significantly as possible within the semester, appropriate to the indicated curricular level.

Lesson assignments consist of scale studies, exercises, etudes, solos, music from band, orchestra or chamber music activities as well other materials depending on specific needs. The purpose of weekly lessons is to assist the student in maximizing the progress of improving facility on the bassoon within the time frame available. It is hoped that the student will make reasonable and steady growth, building on previous accomplishments. In order to be successful, bassoon students need to maintain a positive attitude, attend lessons regularly and be fully prepared at every lesson. Improvement will be quicker if time is spent in concentrated, efficient practice. Developing bassoon performance ability through the Etude, Solo, Chamber and Orchestra literature requires a high degree of organization, efficiency, and creativity for both student and teacher. Lesson time is at a premium, and every minute should be as productive as possible.

Specific skills to be covered: Technical Skills: Posture and Hand Position, Support of the Bassoon, Embouchure Development, Breathing and Air Support, Tone Production, Tone Quality, Vibrato, Control & Expansion of Dynamic Range, Note Lengths & Articulations, Attacks & Releases, Staccato & Legato, Technical Facility & Accuracy, Rhythm & Pulse. Practice Skills: Time Management, Control Development, Technical Development, Intonation Awareness, Systems of Voicing, Fingering Options and Use of Appropriate Fingerings. Theory and Performance Concepts: Tenor Clef, Transposition, Concepts of Musical Interpretation, Phrasing, Knowledge of Performance Practices and Performing Skills, Audition Preparation, Performance Stress Issues, General Performance & Listening Skills, and Performance Psychology Reed Making Topics: Supplies/Suppliers, Equipment Care and Maintenance, Servicing Profilers, Shapers, Small Equipment, Sharpening Knives, Reed Construction: Shaping, Profiling, Blank Construction, Finishing, Testing & Scraping Techniques. Bassoon Maintenance Issues: Swabbing/Cleaning instrument, Lubrication of Mechanisms, Repair, Tone Hole Taping and Pad Height Adjustments for Intonation, Bore Oil and Application.

Semester Jury/Repertoire Lab Performances/Recitals: Bassoon Performance and Education majors are required to perform a jury at the end of the semester, as well as a repertoire lab within the semester. (Depending upon curriculum, rep labs and juries may not be required for some students. The student should consult with their advisor and/or with the Music Department chairperson to determine if they are responsible or not for juries.) The student is responsible for signing up for a repertoire lab time, as well as finding and rehearsing with a suitable accompanist, as aided by the instructor. Jury and repertoire labs involve the performance of a piece selected by the instructor. Additionally, at juries the student is responsible for all major scales, all major arpeggios and a chromatic scale over the practical range of the instrument. More advanced students may also be responsible for all minor scales, as well as all major, minor, diminished and augmented triads over the practical range of the instrument as assigned by the instructor.

Picking repertoire: In considering the relative difficulty of jury & repertoire lab material, musical difficulty as well as technical technical difficulty are considered to be factors. Some easier pieces technically are not suitable for performance until the student has acquired musical maturity and sophistication as well as a certain command of the instrument. The musical literature any student performs should be somewhat easier than the studies that the student is simultaneously working on. The studies stretch the student's technique while the jury & repertoire lab material literature provides a vehicle for performance under less stressful circumstances than would occur with performing a piece that is at the technical limits of the student’s abilities.

Student recitals: If the student is planning to perform a junior or senior recital, plans should be made well in advance. One semester in advance is a minimum time of preparation; two semesters notice is much better. It is the student’s responsibility to schedule the recital and notify the appropriate faculty and staff of the proposed date. Students are encouraged to attend recitals and other performances, as well as all required repertoire labs. By frequent attendance at concerts the student can observe performance etiquette and stage presence, learn repertoire, and listen to unique interpretations. All of these are skills needed to develop as a complete musician. Attendance at the Departmental Recital, which showcases the best students in each area, is required of all persons taking applied lessons. This recital is given each semester, dates are TBA.

Additionally, attendance is required of all music majors to the weekly rep labs held each Thursday at 12:30. There is a sheet that must be signed at the rep labs to verify your presence. Students are encouraged to attend the many other concerts that occur throughout the year at the University, such as UH Band and Orchestra concerts, Student and Faculty recitals, and the Honolulu Chamber Music Series concerts which are held at Orvis Auditorium. Students are also encouraged to attend concerts given by Chamber Music Hawaii, the Honolulu Symphony, and the Hawaii Opera Theater. Whether one is a performance or an education major, the more concerts one can attend the better as far as furthering one’s musical education is concerned. The same can be said about listening to recordings; the ultimate way for a music student to listen to music is with a score in hand. The Sinclair Library has an extensive score and recording section; all students are encouraged to take advantage of this resource.

Course of Study: All students will work on scales (major, minor, whole tone, chromatic, pentatonic, etc.) arpeggios, interval studies, and tonguing exercises. Etudes, Solo, Chamber and Orchestral repertoire will be chosen according to the experience, competence, and needs of the individual student. Material in preparation for Band or Orchestral performance will be studied within the context of the lesson as needed. Repertoire will represent a variety of historical periods and styles. Ideally, the student will have prepared at least one new etude or study piece each week. Undergraduate students will study a variety of composers including Weissenborn, Jancourt, Ozi, Satzenhofer, Valuet and Milde.

Masters level students should come to lessons with at least two etudes per week. One goal of the Master’s program is to complete study of the first volume of the Milde Concert Studies, Op.26, and begin learning Volume Two by the end of the program in addition to continuing the study of the composers covered in the undergraduate level. Master’s level students will also be studying the orchestral repertoire. Orchestral music repertoire can be found @ http://www.tisbookiu.com/ and type in bassoon in the text book search box. (Be sure to select title in the drop window.). There is also a series of CDs (The Orchestra Musician's CD ROM Library) containing orchestral parts which are available at many music dealers. (One source is http://www.forrestsmusic.com/music2.htm) The International Music Score Library Project (@ imslp.org) is another helpful source of sheet music.

Reedmaking: All students will be exposed to the basics of reed adjustment. Due to the cost of reedmaking tools and supplies, a course of studies of reedmaking skills will only happen with mutual agreement of student and teacher. The student will need to commit to an investment in time and money to undertake this complex activity. All students will be exposed to the basics of reed adjustment.

Practice: Practice must be done on a daily basis. Students are expected to establish a regular daily practice schedule. The following times are the suggested amounts: 2 credits - 2 hours/day, 1 credit - 1 hour/day. Practice time is time dedicated to developing skills on the bassoon. Time devoted to reed making is in addition to these suggested times. The student should develop and consistently practice a prescribed daily routine. Organized and efficient use of practice time will maximize progress. This practice time is in addition to participation in ensembles such as Band, Orchestra and Chamber Music. Learning to play the bassoon is a very complex endeavor and students will find it difficult to manage with irregular practice times and habits.

Course Materials: All students should acquire a tuner and a metronome. Students who have a smartphone can find numerous apps that can take the place of a separate tuner and metronome. The best tuner for bassoon is the Boss TU-12H, as it has a bass filter. The recommended metronome is the Dr. Beat DB-88. Study and solo materials will be determined on an individual basis. A list of reed making materials will be provided as needed. Not every student will have the time to learn how to construct reeds from scratch, but every student should learn the basics of reed adjusting. Therefore, an investment in basic reed tools can be considered a part of the cost of this course. Every effort is made to keep costs reasonable. Notebooks/Logs: Students are encouraged to purchase and use ‘The Musician’s Practice Log’ by Burton Kaplan. (Available from instructor or @ http://www.magicmountainmusic.org/pdtBooks.html#log ) The price for this Practice Log is $11.00. All students should maintain a notebook containing weekly lesson assignments, written comments from lessons, repertoire lab performances, juries, recitals and concerts attended, and other materials provided by the instructor. A reed log is also suggested. All of this material should be available for review at each lesson.

Other Equipment Suggested purchases:

-Reed making equipment as necessary.

-Purchase of music for lessons and performances

-A recording device, either tape or mini-disc (or smartphone app).

-Musical terms dictionary: Christine Ammer: Music A to Z:

-Musician's Handbook of Foreign Terms, (pub) Schirmer

Students are encouraged to join or maintain a membership in the International Double Reed Society (IDRS). http://idrs.colorado.edu (online application can be made at this address:) https://www.idrs.org/tango3.acgi$/WWW.IDRS/Registration/Application.new1.taf

Music & Supplies: Music, books & supplies may be ordered from: Forrest's Music http://www.forrestsmusic.com 1849 University Ave. Berkeley, California 94703 (800) 322-6263 Charles Double Reed Company http://www.charlesmusic.com 65 Seavey Street PO Box 2120 North Conway New Hampshire 03860 (800) 733-3847 TrevCo Music http://www.trevcomusic.com P. O Box 4 Tallevast, Florida 34270 (941) 907-6944 (A more complete list of suppliers can be found in the IDRS Journal.) .

How to contact me: The best way to contact me is via e-mail: barrettp@hawaii.edu

My home phone # is 263-0021, cell phone # is 292-5010.

My home address is: 1297 Ulupi'i St. Kailua, Hawaii 93734

This  Applied Bassoon  Handbook includes but is not limited to the above description(s). The Handbook presented shall be considered a basis for determination of individual students’ study programs. This Handbook is subject to change as deemed appropriate to individual needs.